AT 6503 – VEHICLE DESIGN AND DATA CHARACTERISTICS – Question Bank

AT 6503 – VEHICLE DESIGN AND DATA CHARACTERISTICS

T6503 Vehicle Design Data Characteristics Important Questions Nov Dec 2015 AT6503 VDDC Guidance Materials Automobile 5th Semester Nov Dec 2015 Exams

AT 6503 – VEHICLE DESIGN AND DATA CHARACTERISTICS

AT6503 : Vehicle Design Data Characteristics 2 Marks & 16 Marks Important Questions with Answers

University: Anna University

Department: Automobile Engineering

Semester: 05

Year: 03

Regulation: R2013

Subject Code: AT6503

Subject Name: Vehicle Design Data Characteristics

Automobile Engineering
Question Bank
2 marks – Part -A 
UNIT – I    INTRODUCTION

Part – A

1.       What are the design considerations of a vehicle?(Jun 2013)

2.       .Classify the various types of vehicles. (Jun 2013)

3.       Mention various design considerations of a vehicle.(Dec 2012)

 4.         Classify the automobiles based on their gross vehicle weight. (Dec 2012)

5.       List out the parameters required for comparing any two passenger cars.(Jun 2012)

6.         What are the differences between Rolling resistance and Air resistance? (Jun 2012)

7.      Write the advantages of two stroke over four stroke engines.(Dec 2008)

8.        What is the basic requirement for smooth engine operation? .(Dec 2008)

9.       Draw a Performance curve of resistances Vs Vehicle speeds for a typical car .(Jun 2007)

10.     Draw acceleration Vs Vehicle speed for a small car . (Jun 2007)

Part – B

1. (i) Discuss about the design variables which are affecting performance of a vehicle.(8)

(ii) Determine the brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency and overall efficiency of a four stroke four cylinder inline engine with the following specifications. Bore = 101 mm, Stroke =

= 1600 rpm , Fuel consumption = 0.204 kg/mm, Heating value of the fuel = 41800 kJ

= 380 N, Brake circumference = 3.35 m and
= 83 %.   (Jun 2013)(8) 114mm,Speed/kg,Differenceintensiononeithersideofbrakepulleymechanicalefficiency

2. (b) Plot and explain typical performance curves which include acceleration, gradability and drawbar pull for a passenger car based On road speed. (Jun 2013)

3.  Briefly explain about the following: (Dec 2012)
(i) System modeling.

(ii) Vehicle body design consideration.

4. A four cylinder petrol engine has an output of 51.5 kW BP at 2000 rpm. A Morse test was conducted and the brake torque readings were 176.3, 169.5, 166.8 and 173.6 N-m respectively. For normal running at this speed, specific fuel consumption is 0.37 kg/bpW h. The LHV of the fuel is 43900 kJ/kg. Calculate the (i) Indicated power (ii) Frictional power (iii) Mechanical efficiency and (iv) The brake thermal efficiency of the ENGINE . (Dec 2012)

5. Briefly explain the following
(i) Various operating parameters affecting the performance of an engine.
(ii) Factors influencing various resistances to motion. (Jun 2012)

6. A four-cylinder petrol engine has an output of 51.5kW at 2000rpm. A Morse test was carried out and the brake torque readings were 176.3, 169.5, 166.8 and 173.6 N-m respectively. For normal running at this speed, specific fuel consumption is 0.37 kglb kWh. The L.H.V of the fuel is 43900kJlkg. Calculate the mechanical

efficiency and brake thermal efficiency of the engine. (Jun 2012)

7. (i) Describe in brief the fuel system for SI and 01 Engine. (6) .(Dec 2008)
(ii) What are the factors that affect the thermal efficiency of IC Engine? (6) .(Dec 2008)
(iii) How engine rating is defined? (4) .(Dec 2008)

8. (i) What are the effects of over cooling and overheating of engine? (6) .(Dec 2008)
(ii) Show the valve timing diagram for inlet and exhaust valve. (4)
(iii) On what factors, the volumetric efficiency is depending on supercharger engine? (6)

9. Explain clearly the procedure to find the pressure for various crank angle From PV diagram of a 4 – stroke petrol engine. (Jun 2007)

10. Derive the Velocity and Acceleration of a piston. Also sketch the diagram of Velocity and Acceleration Vs Crank angle for a piston of typical 4-stroke petrol engine. (Jun 2007)

UNIT – II  POLLUTANT FORMATION IN ENGINES

 Part – A

 1.    .Define rolling resistances. (Jun 2013)

 2.       4.In what way does the vehicle frontal projected area and vehicle speed influence the motion of the moving vehicle? (Jun 2013)

3.    . Define the term rolling resistance with the factors affecting the same. (Dec 2012)

4.         Differentiate traction and tractive effort. (Dec 2012)

5.       Classify the vehicles based on the values of engine displacement and Acceleration. .(Jun 2012)

6.       If the acceleration is 0.9 m/s² to 1.05 m/s² and maximum velocity is 120 kmph, find the velocity for maximum acceleration. .(Jun 2012)

7.      Draw the performance curve for driving force against vehicle speed . .(Dec 2008)

8.      Define indicated thermal efficiency. .(Dec 2008)

9.       Give the following data for a typical small car. (Jun 2007)

(a) Frontal area                    (b) Engine Displacement

(c) Maximum power           (d) GVW

10.  How can you classify the vehicle corresponding to engine displacement? (Jun 2007)

Part – B

1. A truck weighing 59 kN has a frontal area of 5.6 m2.The overall top gear ratio and the second gear ratio are 6.2:1 and 15:1 respectively. The transmission efficiency at top gear is 90 % and that in second gear is 80 %. The rolling resistance is 17.7 N per 1000 N of truck weight and the wind resistance coefficient is 0.027. If the truck is running on a level road at a maximum speed of 88 km/h, find the following:

(i) The engine BP required at the maximum truck speed
(ii) The engine rpm at the maximum truck speed if the driving wheels have an effective diameter, of 0.81m.
(iii) The maximum grade the truck can negotiate at the above engine speed in the second gear and

(iv) The maximum draw bar pull available on level at the above engine speed in the second gear. (Jun 2013)

2. A fully loaded car weighs 19.9 kN and gives 88 % transmission efficiency in top speed. The road resistance and air resistance are 23 N per 1000 N and 0.0827 V2 (The resistance being in N and V the speed in km/h) respectively. Calculate; .

(i) ‘ the brake power required for a top speed of 144 km/h
(ii) the acceleration in m/s² at 48 km/h, assuming the torque at 48 km/h in the top gear 25 % more than at 144 km/h

(iii) the brake power required to drive the car up a gradient of 1 in 5at 48 km/h, transmission efficiency is 80 % in bottom gear. (Jun 2013)

3.Assuming suitable vehicle data plot, explain the following for various
gear ratios.
(i) Road speed Vs power available at road wheels
(ii) Road speed Vs tractive effort. (Dec 2012)

4. The coefficient of rolling resistance for a truck weighing 62 kN is 0.018 and the coefficient of air resistance is 0.0276 in the formula R = KW + KaAV² ,N, where A is m² of frontal area and V the speed in km/h. The transmission efficiency in top gear of 6.2 : 1 is 90 % and that in the second gear of 15 : 1 is 80 % .The frontal area is 5.6 m². If the truck has to have a maximum speed of 88 km/h in top gear,calculate:

(i) The engine BP required

(ii) The engine speed if the driving wheels have an effective diameter of 0.8m
(iii) The maximum grade the truck can negotiate at the above engine Speed in second gear.

(iv) The maximum draw bar pull available on level at the above engine speed in second gear.(Dec 2012)

5. With the specification of a model car, calculate the rolling resistance, air resistance, total resistance and tractive force. Also calculate the maximum gradient that the vehicle can climb at any velocity. (Jun 2012)

6. The coefficient of rolling resistance for a truck weighting 62293.5 N is 0.018 and the coefficient of air resistance is 0.0276 in the formula R = KW + KaAV², N, where A is m2 of frontal area and V the speed in Km/hr. The transmission efficiency in top gear of6.2:1 is 90% and that in the second gear of 15:1 is 80%. The frontal area is 5.574m². If the truck has to have a maximum speed of 88 km/hr in top gear, calculate:

(i) The engine b.p require;
(ii) The engine speed if the driving wheels have an effective diameter of 0.8125m;
(iii) The maximum grade the truck can negotiate at the above engine speed in second gear; and

(iv) The maximum drawbar pull available on level at the above engine speed in second gear.(Jun 2012)

7. (a) Describe the methods to turn out the frictional power in constant speed engine.

8.(i) Explain the variables that affects the vehicle speed. (10) .(Dec 2008)
(ii) Explain combustion process in engine. (6)

9. Draw a PV diagram of a 4-stroke petrol engine with a compression ratio 9:1. Assume the suction pressure as 0.97 kg/cm². Assume all other data. (Jun 2007)

10.Write the procedure to find the bore and stroke of the piston using IMEP calculated from the pv diagram. Also write the Table for finding then combined turning moment. for a 4 cylinder petrol engine. (Jun 2007)

Unit – III  CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM ENGINES

Part – A

1.       Distinguish between ideal and actual pressure and volume diagram for petrol engine. (Jun 2013)

2.         How does the change in cylinder bore influence the power output? (Jun 2013)

3.       List the factors which contribute the losses in the mechanical efficiency. (Dec 2012)

4.       Define brake mean effective pressure and the factors influencing the value of the same. (Dec 2012)

5.       Derive a relationship between engine speed and vehicle speed. .(Jun 2012)

6.         What is meant by mean piston speed? .(Jun 2012)

7.      What are the factors that affect the performance of an engine? (Dec 2008)

8.        Define air resistance. .(Dec 2008)

 9.    . Define DHP: Express BHP and GHP in terms of DHP. (Jun 2007)

10.  Write the expression relating to engine speed and vehicle speed and explain. (Jun 2007)

Part – B

1. Draw the performance curves for the following characteristics of an automotive diesel engine. Variations of BP, FP, IP,· torque, BMEP, mechanical efficiency and fuel consumption against speed in rpm.Calculate the cylinder dimensions of a Six cylinder engine for the conditions given below:

Thermal efficiency = 22%

Volumetric efficiency= 80%

Mechanical efficiency= 82%

Heating value of petrol= 46400 kJ/kg
Theoretical air required per kg petrol 14.5

Excess of air = 25 %

2. Gas constant of air = 287.14 kJ/kg K Petrol vapour has twice the density of air and the mixture at the end of the suction stroke is at a pressure of 82.4 kN/ m² and a temperature of 333 K. The engine

develops its rated power of 66 kW at a speed of 4200 rpm. Assume the stroke is 25 % greater than the diameter. (Jun 2013)

3.   (i) Plot typical performance curve for diesel and petrol engines. (8) (Dec 2012)

(ii) Brief about the heat transfer, residual gas, valve resistance and valve timing factors that affect the
performance of an engine. (8) (Dec 2012)

4. It IS assumed that an automobile engine can operate at a thermal efficiency of 22 % when operating conditions are as follows:
Volumetric efficiency = 80 %

Mechanical efficiency = 82 %

Heating value of petrol = 46 KJ/ kg
Theoretical air required per kg petrol 14.5

Excess of air 25 %

Petrol vapour has density twice the density of air and the mixture at the end of suction stroke. is at a pressure of 8.2 x 104 N/m² and a temperature of 333 K Gas constant for air is 287 kJ I kg K. Find the cylinder dimensions of a six cylinder engine at the above conditions when the engine develops its rated power of 66 kW at a speed of 4200 rpm. Assume the stroke is 25 % greater than the diameter. (Dec 2012)

5. The indicated horsepower of an eight cylinder engine of capacity 4736 CC is 159 kw at 4400 rpm and indicated mean effective pressure is 8.6 bars. Brake power can be assumed as 154 kW after deduction of friction power. Calculate the torque produced by the engine for brake power of 154 kW at 4400 rpm. (Jun 2012)

6. The bore and stroke of an engine are 73.02 x 88.9 mm. The ratio of the length of connecting rod to crank angle is 3.85. If the gas pressure corresponding to the crank angle of 45° is 35 kgf I m ² , calculate the side thrust on piston skirt at this crank angle. (Jun 2012)

7. (a) The coefficient of rolling resistance for a truck weighing 62293.5 N is 0.0 18 and the Coefficient of air resistance is 0.0276 in the formula R= KW+ Ka AV², N, where A is m² of frontal area and V the speed in km / hr. The transmission efficiency in top gear of 6,2: 1 is 90% and that in the second gear of 15:1 is 80%. The frontal area is 5.574 m². If the truck has to have a maximum speed of 88 km / hr in top gear calculate,

( i) The engine b.p required.
(ii) The engine speed if the driving wheels have an effective diameter of 0.8125 m
(iii) The maximum grade the track can negotiate at the above engine speed in second gear.
.(Dec 2008)

8. A motor car with wheel base 2.75 m with a centre of gravity 0.85 m above the ground and 1.15 m behind the front axle has a coefficient of adhesion 0.6 between the tyre and ground. Calculate the maximum possible acceleration when the vehicle, is

(i) Driven on four wheels,
(ii) Driven on the front wheels only,
(iii) Driven on the rear wheels only. (Dec 2008)

9. A truck weighs 10205 Kgf and the engine develops 1:32 BHP at 2400 rpm. The transmission efficiency is 90% in top gear of 3.4:1 and 85% third gear of 8.4:1. The performance of the vehicle is such that it will just reach a speed o f 86.8 KMPH at 2400 rpm and at the same engine speed in third gear it will just climb a gradient of 1 in 14. If the total resistance in kgf is given by the formula R = KW + KaA.V ² + W Sin ϴ where A is in m² ,V in KMPH and W in Kgf, calculate K and Ka hence the engine HP required for climbing a grade of 1 in 40 at 48 KMPH in top gear. How much more weight can be added to the vehicle to use the engine power fully under the above condition. (Jun 2007)

10. Write short notes on (i)
Rolling Resistance (ii)
Gradient Resistance.
Also write the procedure to draw Driving Force Curve from the Acceleration Curve. (Jun 2007)

Unit – IV  NOISE POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILES
Part – A

1.       Define turning moment on the crank shaft due to gas force. (Jun 2013)

2.         With a sketch show all the forces acting on a slider crank mechanism. (Jun 2013)

3.       What are the design features of connecting rod? (Dec 2012)

4.         Draw turning moment diagram for a single cylinder four stroke engine. (Dec 2012)

5.       Write the equation required for the calculation of reciprocating mass of an engine. (Jun 2012)

6.       .Explain the significance of side thrust acting on the piston. (Jun 2012)

7.      What is mean by traction and tractive effort? .(Dec 2008)

8.        How does compression rings maintain sealing? .(Dec 2008)

9.       Mention at least two importance of PV-Diagrams. (Jun 2007)

10.   What is square, under square and over square engine? (Jun 2007)

Part – B

1. Derive the equations for calculating the displacement, velocity and acceleration of piston and connecting rod of an IC engine. (Jun 2013)

2. A petrol engine is of 100 mm diameter and 125 mm stroke has a connecting rod 250 mm long. The piston has a mass of 1.15 kg. The engine speed is 2000 rpm. On explosion stroke with the crank 20° from The TDC the gas pressure is 0.7 MPa. Determine

(i) Net force on piston
(ii) The resultant load on gudgeon pin
(iii) The thrust on the cylinder walls

(iv) The speed above which the gudgeon pin load would be reversed in direction, the other things remaining the same. (Jun 2013)

3. Derive the expression for calculating displacement, velocity and acceleration of piston and connecting
rod. (Dec 2012)

4. The ratio of connecting rod length to crank length of a vertical gasoline engine is 4 with a crank length of 50.mm, The engine bore and stroke are 80 mm and 100 mm respectively. The mass of reciprocating parts is 1 kg. The gas pressure on the piston is 6 x 105 Pa, when it has moved 40° from the inner dead center on its power stroke. Determine:
(i) Net load on piston
(ii) Net load on gudgeon pin and the crank pin

(iii) Thrust on cylinder walls
(iv) Thrust on crank bearing

Crank angle in Degrees Gas Pressure Kg/Cm²
5.  Calculate

Crank angle in Degrees
Gas Pressure Kg/Cm²
0°
52.5

and acceleration of  a  piston  in terms  of

crank   angle of

0°,15°,30°,45°,60°,75°,90° ,lO5°,120°,135° ,150°,165° ,180°. Assume the length of connecting rod as 200mm and crank radius as 55mm at an engine speed of 1200rpm. (Jun 2012)

6. The following details are given for the piston, during expansion stroke

Crank angle (deg)
15°
30°
45°
60°
75°
90°
lO5°
120°
135°
150°
165°
180°.
Gas   pressure   (kg
50.5
52.5
32.5
24.9
14.5
11.2
9.4
7.5
5.8
4.5
4.0
3.5
2.5
/cm²)

Find the gas force, inertia force and resultant force. Assume Bore area as 49cm²•(Jun 2012)

7. (a) A six-cylinder petrol engine develops 45.6 kW shaft power at :3000 rpm. The volumetric efficiency referred to normal temperature and pressure is 85%. The bore is equal to the stroke and a thermal efficiency of 27% may be assumed. Heating value of petrol is 43890 kJ/kg. Mixture strength if

to be 15:1 ,Calculate the cylinder bore and stroke. (Dec 2008)
8.The following were noted for a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke engine:
Diameter = 101 mm.
Stroke  = 114 mm.
Speed = 1600 r.p.m.
Fuel consumption = 0.204 kg/min .
Heating value of fuel = 41800 kJ/kg
Difference in tension on either side of the brake pulley = 378 N
Brake circumference = 3.35 m.
Assume mechanical efficiency = 83%
Calculate:
(i) Brake thermal Efficiency
(ii) Indicated thermal Efficiency
(iii) Mean effective pressure of Cylinder
(iv) Petrol Consumption per b.k Wh. (Dec 2008)

9. Write the procedure to find the Gas force, Inertia force and Resultant force of a piston for all the
crank angles. (Jun 2007)

10.The following details are given for the piston during expansion stroke. (Jun 2007)

15°
52.5
30°
35.5
45°
21.7
60°
12.5
75°
9.0
90°
7.0
105°
5.5
1200
4.8
1350
4.5
150°
4.0
165°
3.5
180°
2.5

Find the Resultant force. Assume the bore area as 49 cm” and stroke length as 7.9 cm. (Jun 2007)

Unit – V MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES EMISSION STANDARDS AND TESTPROCEDURE 

Part – A

1.       How are intermediate gears decided? (Jun 2013)

2.         How is maximum possible vehicle speed set? (Jun 2013)

3.       Define the term gradability. (Dec 2012)

4.         How are intermediate gears decided for a gear system? (Dec 2012)

5.       Differentiate piston velocity and acceleration. (Jun 2012)

6.       If compression ratio for an engine is 9:1 and suction pressure is 0.9 atm, draw the PV diagram. (Jun 2012)

7.      What is the advantage of synchronized transmission? .(Dec 2008)

8.      Define over drive. .(Dec 2008)

9.   Give typical values of weight of reciprocating parts for a petrol engine.

(Jun 2007)

10. For a 6 cylinder inline engine, write the different ways of firing order followed. (Jun 2007)

Part – B

1. A four speed gear box is to be constructed for providing the ratios of 1.0, 1.46, 2.28 and 3.93 to 1 as nearly as possible. The diametrical pitch of each gear is 3.25 mm and the smallest pinion is to have at least 15 teeth. Determine the suitable number of teeth of the different gears and the distance between the main and lay shaft. Also sketch the layout of a typical constant mesh gear box for these conditions. (Jun 2013)

2. (b) A motor vehicle of total weight 15 kN has a road wheels of 600 mm diameter. The effective moment of inertia of the four road wheels and of the rear axle together is 8 kg m² while that of the engine and flywheel is 1 kg m² -. The transmission resistance at a speed of 24 km/h is 300 N. The total available engine torque is 200 N-m.

Determine

(i) Gear ratio, engine to back axle ratio, to provide maximum acceleration on an upgrade whose sine is 0.25, when travelling at 24 km/h.
(ii) The value of the maximum acceleration
(iii) The speed of the engine and the power under these conditions. (Jun 2013)

3. An automotive gear box gives three forward speeds and one reverse with a top gear of unity and bottom and reverse gear ratio of approximately 3.3 : 1. The centre distance between the shafts is to be

110 mm approximately. Gear teeth of module 3.25 mm are to be employed. Sketch the layout of a typical constant mesh gear box for these conditions giving the number of teeth for the various gear

wheels and showing closely how the different ratios are obtained. (Dec 2012)

4. 4. How is the vehicle speed related to engine rotation? For typical motor car, the road resistance is given by 23 N per 1000 N, the air resistance by the expression 0.0827 V², transmission efficiency 88 % in top speed; car weight 20 kN when fully loaded. Calculate

(i) The brake power required for a top speed of 144 km/h

(ii) The acceleration in m/s² at 48 km/h, assuming. the torque at 48 km/h, in the top gear 25% more than at 144 km/h

(iii) The brake power required to drive the car up a gradient of 1 in 5 at 48 km/h, transmission efficiency 80% in bottom gear. The resistance being in N and V the speed in km/h and g = acceleration due to

gravity = 9.81 m/s². (Dec 2012)

5. Explain the need for a gear box in the automobile. Briefly explain the procedure of calculation of gear ratios for a small car. (Jun 2012)

6. Determine the gear ratios of a four speed gear box for a vehicle of weight 13341.6 N powered by an engine giving 20.6 kW at 1800rpm. The vehicle has a frontal area of 2.23 m2 and has a wheel diameter of 0.71 m. The maximum gradient that the car has to negotiate is 1 in 4. The tractive resistance may be taken as 50 N per 2240 N of the car. The wind resistance is given by 0.03679A V², ‘where A is the

frontal area in m² and V is the vehicle speed -in km/hr. assume that the transmission efficiency is 0.75 and that at top gear, the car is expected to go over a grade of 1 in 40. State any other assumptions you

make. ( Jun 2012)

7. (a) A four speed gear box is to have the following gear ratios, 1.0, 1.5, 2.48 and 3.93. The centre distance between the lay shaft and the main shaft is 73.12 mm and the smallest pinion is to have at least 12 teeth with a diameter pitch of 3.25 mm. Find the number of teeth of the various wheels. Find
the exact gear ratios. . (Dec 2008)

8. An automotive gear box gives three forward speeds and reverses with a top gear of unity and bottom and reverse gear ratio of approximately 3.3:1. The centre distance between the shafts is to be 110 mm Approximately. Gear teeth of module 3.25 mm are to be employed. Sketch the layout of a typical constant mesh gear box for these conditions giving the number of teeth for the various gear wheels and showing closely how the different ratios are obtained. Since the pitch is same for all wheels and the centre distance is the same for all pair of mating wheels, the total number of teeth must be same for

each pair. (Dec 2008)

9. A vehicle with normal laden weight of 1000 kgf gives the following acceleration in top gear.

Vehicle
speed
20
40
60
80
110
KMPH
Acceleration
0.75
0.84
0.77
0.55
0.0
M/Sec²


When the vehicle is running at 110 KMPH the engine develops 35.6 GHP. The vehicle tyres were changed and the new tyres have their rolling radius 0.9 times the rolling radius of old tyres. Find the gradability of the vehicle in top gear with the new tyres. (Jun 2007)

10. Explain the procedure to find the gear ratios and acceleration of the vehicle by assuming the gradability(Jun 2007)


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